Answer: C. Observing study participants without their consent.
Sociological research is the systematic study of people and institutions using interviews, surveys, ethnography, focus groups, and text analysis. In conducting sociological research, the consent of the individual or group of individuals is important. If the consent of the recipient is not gotten, the research becomes unethical. We can learn so much just from observing things but when dealing with humans, permission has to be gotten before observation can commence. If this isn’t done, it becomes an infringement of a person’s privacy and can lead to a court case.