Answer: B. monarchy
The word “arch” comes from the Greek word “archos” with the meaning “chief, leader, or ruler.” Words like hierarchy, archbishop, patriarchy, monarchy, etc. all contain the word “arch” and are therefore talking about a ruler or leader of some kind. An upper-level ruler in ancient Greece was known as an archon but today, can be referred to as any type of ruler. Monarchy, a type of government “ruled” by a king or queen, now makes sense as to find the word “arch” in it.