Answer: D. All of the above are communication barriers caused by ethnocentrism.
Ethnocentrism entails seeing one’s cultural beliefs as superior to other people’s beliefs and customs. The belief that your custom is better than others and everyone should adapt to it is just what ethnocentrism defines. In ethnocentrism, communication is usually very unproductive as people tend to shut down when feelings of devaluation are felt.
Ethnocentrism promotes arrogance and pride, creates misunderstandings, hatred, and hostility between regions, dehumanizes others, limits mutual understanding, and divides society. Ethnocentrism can be advantageous and disadvantageous but is generally seen to be a major problem in society. All of the options listed are communication barriers caused by ethnocentrism.